Top Ideas on Decontamination of Medical Facilities
The process of cleansing a substance or object to remove hazardous material including infectious diseases, radioactive substances and chemicals is decontamination. Prevention of the spread of microorganism and other noxious contaminants which has the risk of threatening the health of human beings or animals and may damage the environment is the purpose of decontamination. Veterinary science, surgery and dentistry are the medical areas in which decontamination is applied.
Aside from the medical field also in food preparation, environmental science and forensic science are the areas where decontamination is applied. The process of decontamination involves three methods so as to eliminate pathogens or other substances from a spoiled implement. The three levels include disinfection, sterilization and sanitization.
The level of disinfection involves use of disinfectants which are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non- living objects to destroy microorganisms that are present in living things. The resistant bacterial spores are not killed by disinfection spores but other types of microorganism are eliminated. The most effective type of microorganism elimination is sterilization which kills all types of microorganism. The cell wall of the microorganism is interfered with by disinfection process.
There are various types of disinfectants which include; alcohols, aldehydes, air disinfectants, oxidizing agents, phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds , inorganic compounds and others. Inorganic compounds are types of disinfectants which have sub categories and they include; chlorine, acids and bases, terpenes, metals and iodine.Concentrated formulations are found in some quaternary ammonium compounds which are a large group of related compounds. Chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite are a group of aquoes solution that belong to chlorine an inorganic compound.
There are several methods of decontamination which include physical cleaning, disinfection, antisepsis, sterilization, ultrasonic cleaning and water purification. Water is removed undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants and suspended solids and gas through a process known as water purification. For the purpose of human consumption drinking water is purified and disinfected.
The following applications that is industrial, medical, pharmacological and chemical are requirements that are fulfilled by water purification. There are methods that are used in water purification which include; sedimentation, filtration, distillation which are physical processes while biological process include slow sand filters or biologically active carbon also there are chemical processes which are flocculation and chlorination.
Reduction in concentration of particulate matter which are parasites, bacteria, fungi, algae and suspended particles with also the inclusion of the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter. A method of decontamination that involves removing or eliminating, deactivation or killing all forms of life and any other biological agents like fungi, bacteria, viruses, unicellular organisms that are present in a specified region such as the volume of a fluid, medication or in a compound that is culture media is sterilization which is also a level of decontamination. The process of sterilization is achieved through heating, irradiation, filtration and high pressure.