CBD and other medications: Proceed with caution – Harvard Health Blog

Products containing cannabidiol (CBD) seem to be all the rage these days, promising relief from a wide range of maladies, from insomnia and hot flashes to chronic pain and seizures. Some of these claims have merit to them, while some of them are just hype. But it won’t hurt to try, right? Well, not so fast. CBD is a biologically active compound, and as such, it may also have unintended consequences. These include known side effects of CBD, but also unintended interactions with supplements, herbal products, and over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications.

Doubling up on side effects

While generally considered safe, CBD may cause drowsiness, lightheadedness, nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, and, in rare instances, damage to the liver. Taking CBD with other medications that have similar side effects may increase the risk of unwanted symptoms or toxicity. In other words, taking CBD at the same time with OTC or prescription medications and substances that cause sleepiness, such as opioids, benzodiazepines (such as Xanax or Ativan), antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines (such as Benadryl), or alcohol may lead to increased sleepiness, fatigue, and possibly accidental falls and accidents when driving. Increased sedation and tiredness may also happen when using certain herbal supplements, such as kava, melatonin, and St. John’s wort. Taking CBD with stimulants (such as Adderall) may lead to decreased appetite, while taking it with the diabetes drug metformin or certain heartburn drugs (such as Prilosec) may increase the risk of diarrhea.

CBD can alter the effects of other drugs

Many drugs are broken down by enzymes in the liver, and CBD may compete for or interfere with these enzymes, leading to too much or not enough of the drug in the body, called altered concentration. The altered concentration, in turn, may lead to the medication not working, or an

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Alcohol harms the brain in teen years –– before and after that, too – Harvard Health Blog

If we only paid attention to ads, it might seem as though alcohol — a beer or glass of wine, a shot of fiery liquor or sophisticated cocktail — merely served as a way to bring people together and make them happy. Drink responsibly, the ads wink, without ever explaining the toll that frequent or excessive alcohol use exacts, particularly at certain stages in life. Because alcohol doesn’t just get us drunk, impair our judgment, and hurt our liver: it can have many other bad effects on our bodies — including effects on the brain.

In a recent editorial in The BMJ, a trio of scientists pointed out that there are three periods in life when the brain goes through major changes and is particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol. Two of those periods are at the beginning and end of life. When pregnant women drink alcohol, it can damage the developing brain of the fetus, leading to physical problems, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems. When people over the age of 65 drink alcohol, it can worsen declines in brain function that happen during aging.

The third period is adolescence. During those years of transition between childhood and adulthood, the brain grows and changes in many important ways that are crucial for that transition to be successful. When teens and young adults drink alcohol, it can interfere with that process of brain development in ways that affect the rest of their lives.

Alcohol use in teens and young adults

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), alcohol is the most commonly used substance among young people in the US. Although rates of drinking and binge drinking have been going down over recent decades, national surveys show that among youth and young adults, one in five

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Exercise matters to health and well-being, regardless of your size – Harvard Health Blog

Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc in our daily lives. Regardless of who you are, your life has been impacted in some way. Stress is mounting, and you may need to find a way to decompress while social distancing. Enter stage left my favorite pastime: exercise!

All right, I know what you are thinking: She’s one of those exercise fanatics who is going to tell me that I need to exercise several hours every day. Well, no. What I am going to tell you is that you can make exercise work for you. It is imperative to find your “soulmate workout” or simple activities you can do. You might think that you need to be a certain size or already in shape to engage in exercise. This is simply not true, nor is it helpful for your health and well-being, since exercise — even small amounts — helps improve blood pressure, heart problems, blood sugar control, and mood. It can help you live longer, too.

So, let’s start with some questions that you may have. How much physical activity does your body need? Is it possible to be active during the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic? How can you make exercise work for you? What if excess weight or painful joints make it hard to be active? And what if you haven’t been active at all? We’ve got the answers for you.

How much exercise do I need?

Before you start counting minutes, understand this: almost anything that gets your body moving counts as exercise, and active minutes add up over your day and week.

Every week, adults should aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity, or 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity. So depending on the intensity of exercise, that could be 30

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Can I take something to prevent colorectal cancer? – Harvard Health Blog

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. There is compelling evidence that screening to detect CRC early to find and remove precancerous polyps can reduce CRC mortality. However, screening has associated harms, including procedural complications, and inherent limitations. For example, colonoscopy, the most common screening tool in the US, is less effective in preventing cancers of the right, or ascending side, of the colon compared with cancers of the left, or descending, side of the colon.

Moreover, only 60% of US adults recommended for screening actually follow through. Even under the best circumstances, screening is resource-intensive, requiring time, equipment, and a trained doctor to perform the procedure, and cannot be widely implemented in many parts of the world. Thus, alternatives to screening to effectively prevent CRC are a high unmet need.

What are alternatives to screening for prevention of colorectal cancer?

Adherence to healthy lifestyle habits, including maintaining a healthy body weight, keeping physically active, and abstaining from tobacco, can reduce risk of CRC in all individuals. These habits also help prevent other chronic health conditions.

In addition to lifestyle, chemoprevention — the use of agents to inhibit, delay, or intercept and reverse cancer formation — also holds significant promise. The ideal chemopreventive agent, or combination of agents, requires the benefits to outweigh the risks, especially since effective prevention likely requires long-term use. Many different agents have been proposed and studied over the last several decades.

Study suggests aspirin may help prevent colorectal cancer

In an article published in the journal Gut, researchers performed a systematic review, analyzing data from 80 meta-analyses or systematic reviews of interventional and observational studies published between 1980 and 2019, examining use of medications, vitamins, supplements, and dietary factors for prevention of CRC in people of

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